Many information, values and procedures are transmitted the child, will have to be translated and enclosed the works of the school, to contribute in the formation of apt conscientious citizens to decide and to act in the partner-ambient reality, with knowledge of values that they express by means of artistic and cultural behaviors, techniques and manifestations, making possible the interference in the analysis searching solutions of the identified problems. The ambient education can help to become more excellent the general education, to start for basic education developing new way to live without destroying the environment, in a new style of life. Boy Scouts of America is actively involved in the matter. Therefore it must invest in a mentality change, acquiring knowledge the human groups ahead to adopt new points of view and new positions of the quandaries and the made constataes, applying more sustainable forms each time of interaction partner-nature and solutions for the ambient problems. The alone ambient education is not enough to change the routes of the planet, but certainly it is necessary condition for in such a way. She is necessary to rescue the taste and the pleasure in the education, bringing to the ambient educators the challenge to actively participate of the debates and initiatives around the importance of the diversity of beings livings creature.
The ambient education involves all the culture human being: the social economy, politics, resolutions, the arts, etc. Favoring the survival of the future generations gifts and of the species human being and all the species of the planet, more joust, healthful and pleasant that the current one. Any work must take to the action the practical one, in an ample project, that of the o pupil the environment vision, where it constructs knowledge to understand and to interpret the world and to act on it. The scale is a privileged place for the ambient education, with operating citizens who with democracy live the practical one of its values. The understanding of the complex characteristics in the environment is to interpret the interdependence between the diverse elements that form the beings livings creature using rationally the natural resources satisfying material and spiritual the society in the gift and the future. The ambient education must enable to the full exercise of the citizenship through the formation, enclosing techniques capable to make possible sustainable developments and to create bases for the understanding of the reality. She is necessary also that the professor has some familiarity with the language spent in the social movement in the movement of defense of the environment.
This is one of the data of the formation of the professor in ambient education that can propitiate at the same time the integral development of the pupils to the practical exercise of the citizenship. The professor must work to form citizens capable to assume its responsibilities ambient and ethical partners, diversifying the procedures to guarantee a rich situation, stimulant and challenger for the pupils. It does not exist you formulate ready and magical ' is necessary; ' to learn in the reality and of realidade' '. Baltazar juraszek Specializing Terezinha Saint
The concern in establishing sustainable forms of production became recurrent in the world. The leaderships most responsible are deriving they of the public administration, of the enterprise way or it third sector, does not divergem on the necessity to continue to generate economic activity that allows to guarantee the survival of a planet that will pass of current the 7 billion inhabitants for the house of the 9 billion in an inferior horizon the 30 years. By the way, 2010 represented a landmark in which in the history of the humanity the urban population for the first time surpassed the agricultural population. This wants to say that each time more we will have little people in the field and more mouths to feed in the cities. This fact, makes in them to reflect on the paper of the agriculture in a total innovative way. By the same author: Boy Scouts of America. We cannot more face the food as something to saciar the hunger.
In the truth, it is source of generation of energy for each one of the wonderful machines that the human being represents. Thus rank, the relative subject the agricultural production will give possibility stops that, the call third world, located usually below of the line of the Equator, either the great supplier of that will be the merchandise rarest, and therefore very coveted, for the developed economies: sustainable energy. Therefore, I understand not to have quandary enters the food production and of biomass, after all, everything converges the same to point. Brazil has given demonstration of that it is capable to produce a biocombustvel of the quality of etanol that it represents only 11% of the emissions of effect gases greenhouse of the gasoline? a so evident profit that it speaks for itself? however, using only 1% of its agricultvel area with the plantation of sugar sugar cane. It falls for land, the arguments of the adversaries of the country in the international plan who had taken years having tried to satanizar the Brazilian biocombustvel spreading lies and bobagens as for example: the occupation of the Amaznia with the sugar cane plantation. e. By the way, the only distillery that dared to defy the logic technique of that region, closed its doors. Brazil if has disclosed so competitive in agronegcio substance that comes generating the feeling in its competitors of whom they need to react, and they have made this in some ways, also with the newness more argued it moment that are the calls responsibility barriers ambient partner.
Such barriers, very surpass in the efficiency of the calls customs or sanitary barriers. These, Brazil discovered the formula to contest in fruns international as, for example, the OMC? World trade organization? or the OIE? World-wide organization of Animal Health. Already these new restrictions are diffuse and spread directly it enters the consumers of these countries, generating pressures against the acceptance of our main products, either in the chains of animal production or vegetal, with accusations of that Brazil as a whole, disregards ambient, working and social legislation. Who only knows deeply the scene of the nations, can evaluate how much such accusations are unjust. It stops not to go very far, is enough to remember that the Europe deforested its territory almost all, as well as the United States, and that China is not accurately one ' ' referncia' ' in what it refers to the relations of work and respect to the human rights. Lack therefore moral authority to place Brazil in this corner. Claude Cataldi is journalist/presenter of the Responsa program Ability Claudiacataldi@ responsahabilidade.org.br
in short while scientific way because it is very important that all the people give its contribution to brake the Global Heating, beyond demanding that the governing make the same: In the last Glacial Age the average temperature of the Land was something around 3 the 4 lesser Celsius degrees that the average of nowadays. Then, new studies indicate that the average temperature of the Land will be able to suffer – will more than suffer a rise from 7 Celsius degrees up to 2100. That is, two times the difference of the Glacial Age for the current Age. All the models most pessimistic of the IPCC are if confirming and almost folding. This in an interval of only three years of difference in relation to the previous data. Of 1800 for here, the temperature of the Land with some oscillations increased 0,6 degrees. in this increase we saw a drastic intensification of catastrophic ambient events (as if the man it was not the responsible one).
The nature only in> it answers and it tries to defend its balance If all these effect had been felt in an inferior variation in 12 (TWELVE) times in relation to the increase that we will have, what we will be able to wait of the day of tomorrow? Moreover, we must have the conscience of that the multiplication in numbers can be linear, but the effect will be multiplicativos, a time that everything in the nature functions in chain. That is, a rise of 3 Celsius degrees in the temperature of the Land already would be the sufficient to melt the Polar regions, that the rise of the level of the sea would cause, would cease some maritime chains, would liberate methane of the deepenings of the Arctic, the sun would leave of being reflected, the heating still more would be intensified, and the true effect, God only knows which would be Some brief projects: With regard to the temperature: It was Glacial: Around 11 degrees; It was current: Around 15 degrees; Almost tomorrow: Almost 22 degrees. With regard to the Ice: It was Glacial: Almost all congealing; It was current: Almost everything melting; Almost tomorrow: God only knows. With regard to the climate: He was Glacial: Icecream; It was current: Hot Ameno/; Almost Tomorrow: God only knows. With regard to the life conditions: He was Glacial: Dificlimas; It was current: Starting to be difficult; Almost tomorrow: We will have life? It will be that still of in time saving the life in the Land? If all to be of crossed arms, not! Who plant destruction, harvests catastrophe! Now, if all to be joined and if to help, fighting for the change of the social and moral values based in the capital money for love and charity, basing its attitudes in justice, the equality and the humildade, believe sincerely that still we have possibilities. The pacific fight and without weapons must be in favor of the trilogy of the wisdom, whose illustrious representative greater Was loved Master Jesus Christ: to love the God, to love and to help the next one, to protect and to reencontrar the ambient balance. That is, balance spiritual, ambient moral and! We go to move and to fight for the life; or to cross the arms and to continue to see the Land to die? We will die with or receive – our attitudes in accordance with
The unevenness enters the contribution areas and of the soil erosions significant and when it is not worked of form adjusted it tends to promote moments in the regolito for force of the action of pluvial waters. Consideraes Final the urbanization modifies the landscapes, ground, geomorfologia, hdrico regimen, fauna, flora and even though the micron climate, and new landscapes are formed in the process of installation of infrastructures as waters, sewer, energy, houses, asfaltos and etc. For Guerra and Maral, (2006, p.28). Fast growth cause a significant pressure on the urban environment, having the varied consequences more, such as atmospheric pollution, of the ground and waters, landslides, floods etc. The increase of the urban populations was characteristic of the Brazilian cities of great, average transport and small, however the processes of urbanization in many cities are developed great ambient problems as occupation of risk area, areas of ambient preservation in end inclined areas the great catastrophes ambient human beings and, as the notified ones in the of the state of Rio de Janeiro coast, with great movement of mass due to rains and occupation of risk area and volunteer. The formation of soil erosions in the Quarter Garden of the Buritis, and an example clearly of bad urban planning, the area in question is an area of permanent preservation, with springs and trails and lagoons delinquents of the river San Francisco. The planning lack stops with pluvial waters and torrents formed in the quarter high are another factor, determinative for formation of the soil erosions in the quarter garden of the Buritis, it has seen that the volume of waters generated by the quarters is enormous, and the formation of erosions and only one transference of the problem of torrent waters.
It is difficult to believe the occured tragedies in Rio De Janeiro when we see news articles in periodicals and the TV. The population if makes an impression with the number of dead (300) and homelesses, who are situated near the border of the 6300. Firemen action of and volunteer also impress themselves with the humanitarian helping in the delivery of foods and water. It is a gesture of the great solidarity, but that he finishes stifling the real cause it problem. The people affected for rains are the ones that live in irregular occupations in the hillsides and edges of mounts and rivers, in its majority. However, they are not the people whom they choose, this situation is imposed they. But why this happens in Brazil, a country that is enters the 10 bigger economies of the world? The reply for this question it is the total indifference of the authorities, that do not bind for the prevention: they want immediate actions because these generate votes.
Brazil must have adjusted infrastructure to face situations as this, because the consequences are devastadoras; beyond the expense for reconstruction: 485 million set free dollars for the World Bank for the cause. For specialists, the excuse of the authorities to blame the bad climate is ragged. However, analyzing in a world-wide scale, nor in such a way. Many storms also come occurring in Australia, Ski Lanka and in the South Africa. Specialists affirm that they are consequncias of the global heating. Had to the increase of concentration of pollutant gases in the atmosphere, these gases accumulate the heat of the Sun, esquentando the ocean. A hotter ocean liberates more humidity, causing more rains. It can be said that only one culprit does not exist. The tragedies are result of the indifference, not only of the Brazilian authorities, but also of the world-wide population, that closes the eyes for the ambient problems. The fulfilment of preventive projects is necessary in order to prevent such catastrophic situations, but also the awareness of all for, thus, preventing more deaths is necessary.
This subject is very interesting, because, shows to the reality of the Brazilian cities front serious the climatic problems. The article considers a reflection on the subject and the subjects to be boarded are extensive, being able to have the contribution of all. The first question that I make is: the cities are prepared to face water excesses? Not. It was clearly this north-eastern perception, North, Sudeste and Santa Catarina in 2008 and 2009. We perceive that it does not have logistically, instruments of immediate aid in more than 90% of the Brazilian cities. When some mechanism of aid exists saw Defense Civil, almost always they lack material and human resources for efficient the operational application. I can affirm that the cities in the country are rare, that count on staff prepared for risk situations.
Without aid infrastructure, it is impossible to take care of a high volume of people in short space of time, they lack: instruments, canoes, small boats, tents, helicopters, vehicles, trucks of dragagem, amongst as much other necessary equipment in emergency situations. With the effect greenhouse, it has a trend of the tropical areas in the world to be more affected for the climate, exactly the regions poor of the planet, with bigger risk. I stand out the paper of true heroes of the volunteers of the Civil Defense spread by the country, but, I just do not find to at risk place the life of them due to resources. When I come across with this question I am to think about the victims of Santa Catarina and as much other cities of Brazil and the world that are suffering for the climatic effect. In the 131 catarinenses cities, I must stand out that the aid of the federal government arrived at the half of the affected cities.
As Ribeiro (1998, P. 93), … with the discovery of techniques of irrigation and adubagem of the ground, the generalization of the use of the plough and vehicles of wheel, as well as of boats the candle, diverse peoples had revolutionized in its capacity of food production, having caused the first sprouting of cidades' '. With the Renaissance, it was inaugurated modernity, walking opposing to the savage, the ignorance and the nature. ' was necessary; ' domesticar' ' the human beings not to act as animal. Second Oak (2002, p.41) the civilizador process gave itself with the advent of the cities.
The city, counterpoint of the wild nature, then if presented as lcus the word locus (plural loci) means ' ' lugar' ' in Latin of the civility, the cradle in the good ways, it taste and of sophistication. To leave the forest and to go for the city were a civilizatrio act. The people created in the city were considered more educated than those that lived in the fields. The nature, had then as the Other of the civilization, represented a threat to the rising order. The human being, leaving the nature, could then call a civilized being more and not being part of it as wild. This civilized being started to be part of another territory, being ' ' longe' ' of the nature. The human being to remain itself in the city started to spoil the environment removing of it all the necessary resources for its survival. The abundance of natural resources allowed the belief in the infinity of the same ones. The concentration of the population demanded the necessity of consumption of foods, clothes, remedies, etc. No longer century XVIII, with the expansion of the bourgeoisie and the commerce of diverse products the exploration of the work force was basic for the expansion of the industrial production.
The basic sanitation involves the collection of the garbage, the treatment and the water supply for the population, the handling of waters of rain, the collection and the treatment of the sewer, and several other subjects come back toward the hygienic cleaning. It sees below some concepts on subjects related to the basic sanitation: Basins of captation: it receives water from the sources. This water, after treated, serves for the supplying of the population; Basin of draining: it receives the water from rains it dislocates and it for rivers, lakes, dams, and other sources; Water supply: system that involves the captation, treatment and distribution of the water for human consumption; Treatment of the water: system that modifies the physical properties, chemical and biological, of the water. The treatment of becomes it to the water potable and proper for the human consumption; Desentupidoras: unstopping companies who carry sewer until the stations from treatment, in the occasions where the sewer net are inexistent and population counts only on fossas; Treatment of sewer: system that involves the captation of the sewers industrial, residential, farming and hospital, by means of tubings or for intermediary of the clean service of fossa supplied by desentupidora company. After the captation, the sewer is dealt with in the Stations of Treatment Effluent having as end items the half-clean water and the silt; Decantation: process of separation of materials and liquids that occurs during the treatment of the sewer; Expositories: tubings that bind the sources of water to the Stations of Water Treatment; Net of sewer: tubings that carry sewer until the Stations from Treatment from Effluent; Treatment of the garbage: process that it aims at to optimize the garbage with the reaproveitamento, the recycling and the reduction. An example of reduction of the use of the garbage says respect the exchange of the plastic bags for bag returned..
WAITED RESULTS? Agreement of that our actions to the nature reflect directly in our quality of life, therefore we are planetary beings e, therefore, part of the way that in it surrounds. Reflections concerning the importance of the thematic one of the ambient education as exercise of the citizenship. Pupils as multiplying of the ambient education before the community. MATERIAL HUMAN RESOURCES/? HUMAN BEINGS? Workers, pupils and partners of the Center Jose of Mosque; Collaborators; Palestrantes; Specific professionals (marceneiro, gardener, horticultor, paisagista, agronomist, sanitarista, etc). MATERIALS? Seeds of ornamental and hortalias plants (organic)? Changes of ornamental and hortalias plants (organic)? Watering hole with system of filters domestic type? Tools for horticulture and jardinagem? Proper hampers for selective collection? Wooden fishery and ornamental sombrite for changes and plants; Hardware in general for confection of the fishery, boxes seedbeds, balconies and group of bencheses.
Wood for confection of caixotes for compostagem, seedbeds of hortas, gardenings, you surround, etc.? Organic black land? Minhocrio domestic type Documentary films/? Plastic bags for garbage collect in field lessons? T-shirts for the campaigns? Filmadora camera? Vases, gardenings, floreiras, cacheps and assessrios for plants? Didactic-pedagogical materials: notebooks layer-last, passbooks, A-4 paper, pencil, penxses, rubber, manual plane table? Professional Trena, meter and level
Finally, the exceeding redistribution of the time, money and energy. According to Mollison (1991), this third component means that after dealing with the necessities basic and drawn the systems with optimum of our abilities, we can extend to our influence and energies in helping the others to reach this approach with ‘ ‘ creation of equitable methods of distribution, guaranteeing the access to the resources to that of them they need, without the intervention of different systems of commerce or accumulation of riqueza’ ‘ (TO SOUND, 1998, p.6). The systems of the Permacultura also are based on basic ethics of the life, that in accordance with Miralles and Romero (2001), is associated with deep Ecology4 (Deep Ecology). Beyond the ethics, the Permacultura if bases on some principles that are essential for a good planning and that they are proceeding from the diverse areas of the knowledge as the Ecology, Social Architecture, Geography, Biology, Agronomy, Sciences and Economy. In relation to the character to multidiscipline of the principles of the Permacultura the scientific base for the principles of design in Permacultura if points out generally in the scope of the modern science of the ecology, and more particularly, inside of a branch of the ecology called ‘ ‘ ecology of sistemas’ ‘.
Others you discipline intellectuals, more particularly the geography of the landscape and the etno-biologias, have contributed with concepts that come being suitable to the principles of design. (Holmgren 2007, p.9) the principles of the Permacultura are inherent to any permacultural planning. According to Mollison (1998, p.5): To elaborate good design permacultural she is necessary to follow two basic steps. The first one is of that the laws and the principles they can be adapted to any climatic and cultural condition and second is more narrowly associate with the practical techniques, that in accordance with change the climate and with the culture.