Detergent properties of disinfectants are to remove liquid and solid contaminants from the surface and transferring them into the washing liquid in the form of solutions. Detergent action is manifested in the complex processes of interaction dirt, detergent and surfaces. The main phenomena determining the detergency, are the processes of physical and chemical adsorption, wetting, emulsification, foaming and stabilization. Methods for cleaning up surface based on the use of liquid detergent, include the processes of physical and chemical adsorption. Adsorption processes reduce the strength of contaminants on metallic surfaces in boundary layers, reduce the resistance to mechanical effects of pollution, contribute to an increase in dispersion and formation of microcracks on the surface of the material, which ultimately accelerates the removal of contaminants. By contacting solids and liquid detergent disinfectant on solid surfaces have a boundary layer, molecules which are not balanced with a liquid medium.
Therefore, the boundary layer has an excess free energy or adsorption activity. In general, the entire cleaning process can be structured in consecutive phases. Since almost all the pollution are hydrophobic, the water having a high surface tension, does not wet contaminated surfaces and contracts to individual drops. When dissolved in water, detergent disinfectant surface tension decreases, and the solution wets the pollution getting into its cracks and pores. It reduces the adhesion of the particle pollution among themselves and with the surface. Under the mechanical action, carried away by the molecules of detergent disinfectant mud particles into solution. Detergent molecules funds are adsorbed on the dirt and washed surfaces, which prevents the coarsening of the particles and their settling on the surface. As a result of pollution particles, in suspension are stabilized in the solution and removed with him. The quality of the cleaning solution adopted to judge by the number of formed foam. The foam helps keep the dispersed pollution and prevent its deposition on a clean surface. But to identify foaming cleanser with the action is not entirely correct, since it is not a specific characteristic of detergent action.