The operating table is the central operating room component, since it gives the patient the necessary physical support during surgical procedures. Tables for operating rooms should be ergonomically designed and secure in every sense. Modern operating rooms have been planned for purposes of enabling open surgery as well as laparoscopic surgery (for small hole or minimally invasive). Some rooms have been adapted for very similar to laparoscopic surgery, robotic surgery, but causes less trauma to the patient. There are many different surgical specialties that fit into the following broad categories: general, orthopedic, obstetric/gynecological, Urological surgery, cardiothoracic, neurosurgery, paediatric surgery, ENT surgery, oral surgery and ophthalmic surgery. Each surgical specialty requires different operating tables, several specialized positions and individualised functions. Tables for operating rooms consist of a table top and a fixed pedestal, which serves as a support.
Generally the table is divided into 3 or 4 sections: head, body (one or two sections) and leg / foot. Each section can be adjusted or removed according to the optimal position for the patient. There are mountable accessories that improve the adaptability of the tables, particularly for orthopedic operations, which makes possible the use of a table of operations for different types of surgical procedures, essential to facilitate the continued use of the operating room, and thus increase their efficiency and profitability in general. There are two different types of operating table: fixed base and mobile base. The table of fixed base operations has interchangeable top tables, which can be adapted to a fixed pedestal. Accommodates the patient on the table appropriate to the type of operation. Table top, with the patient positioned on it, is then placed on a cart of four wheels at the end of take it to the operating room, where the table is mounted on the fixed pedestal.
The mobile operating tables have transferable tables. The upper table is permanently fixed to a base mobil which consists of four wheels and brakes. The patient is first positioned on the operating table and then transported to the operating room. During surgical procedures the base and wheels remain securely locked, for purposes of preventing any movement. The possibilities of adjustment and the manoeuvrability of the operating tables are the most important points. In complicated situations, ample versatility in the possibilities of adjusting the height of the table and its longitudinal movement are cardinal. It is also important that table top pay easily to be adjusted to the required position. Most of the tables of existing operations are controlled manually or using mechanical or hydraulic operation. In the future, the operating tables will be activated by a device that the operator be given relevant information in terms of the condition and position of the table of operations. Table top must be sufficiently rigid and stable, suitable for transporting patients from great weight. Also, the materials with which the table is built must be transparent to x-rays. Also pay attention to the mattress: this must be removable, washable and antistatic. It must also be segmented or hinged, at the end of be adapted to the different configurations and sizes of table top. The mattress should also be made of a material able to redistribute pressure, for purpose of avoiding the formation of pressure sores.