Mechanical World

The foundation of new science, with emphasis in the rationality and the relation theory/experimentation, occured in century XVII and raised to the apex of its thought in century XVIII came for knocking down the power any speculation to explain the cosmos and its realities. Analogous, Newton conceives, for the matematizao of the Universe, questions still in opened exactly with the discoveries of Kepler and Galileu. Of this form, the Cosmos is reduced to an enormous system of a great complexity that, however, is understandable for the application of the mathematics. The Cosmos of Newton becomes something as a mathematical equation, where to get a value y it is enough to place a known value x already. Of this it consists the mecanicismo of Newton, the Nature can be understood by the rational knowledge of the forces that interact with it, using the physical laws of the movement and the gravitation. The Universe does not pass, therefore, of a machine that has predefined functioning already, creating thus a capable implicit determinismo of everything to foresee and to disbelieve. Objetiviza the Cosmos and in this way also the world vision them people. All the spirit of centuries XVIII and XIX breathes this physical mecanicidade applied to the astros and bodies.

The philosophy becomes, consequentemente, mechanist and the methods and theories used for sciences, reducionistas. Everything is objective and the certainty is always present. However, a epistemolgico questioning with Locke, Berkeley and Leibniz enters in evidence, showing the complexity of if conceiving substances. Destarte, such line of thought opens the doors so that if the preposition elaborates of that everything what we know does not pass of existing qualities in the spirit, that is, more cannot be objective. Going beyond, Einstein claims that even though the certezas conserved for the mechanics of Newton are relative, thus destroying the world mathematical and determined by the physical laws. In fact, the space alone has existence in the conscience human being, only of this form is objective: while order of the things perceived for the man. Equally, the time does not have proper existence not to be organizador of the events measured for the man. In this manner, the picture of conception of world starts to take new forms and to enter perfectly in contrast with the old mechanical and conducted Cosmos for the numbers. Relativity opposes the objetividade of the Universe that if becomes uncertain and dependent of the citizen, in a horizon where the only certainty is of the divergence before what it is overcome as referencial.